Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Group
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Climate dimension of natural halogens in the Earth system: Past, present, future

ERC Consolidator Grant ERC-2016-COG 726349


Naturally-emitted very short-lived halogens (VSLH) have a profound impact on the chemistry and composition of the atmosphere, destroying greenhouse gases and altering aerosol production, which together can change the Earth´s radiative balance. Therefore, natural halogens possess leverage to influence climate, although their contribution to climate change is not well established and most climate models have yet to consider their effects. Also, there is increasing evidence that natural halogens i) impact on the air quality of coastal cities,  ii) accelerates the atmospheric deposition of mercury (a toxic heavy metal) and iii) that their natural ocean and ice emissions are controlled by biological and photochemical mechanisms that may respond to climate changes. Motivated by the above, this project aims to quantify the so far unrecognized natural halogen-climate feedbacks and the impact of these feedbacks on global atmospheric oxidizing capacity (AOC) and radiative forcing (RF) across pre-industrial, present and future climates. Answering these questions is essential to predict if these climate-mediated feedbacks can reduce or amplify future climate change. To this end we will develop a multidisciplinary research approach using laboratory and field observations and models interactively that will allow us to peel apart the detailed physical processes behind the contribution of natural halogens to global climate change. Furthermore, the work plan also involves examining past-future climate impacts of natural halogens within a holistic Earth System model, where we will develop the multidirectional halogen interactions in the land-ocean-ice-biosphere-atmosphere coupled system. This will provide a breakthrough in our understanding of the importance of these natural processes for the composition and oxidation capacity of the Earth´s atmosphere and climate, both in the presence and absence of human influence.

Publications list:

- Abrahamsson, K., Granfors, A., Ahnoff, M., Cuevas, C. A. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Organic bromine compounds produced in sea ice in Antarctic winter, Nat. Commun., 9(1), doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07062-8, 2018.

- Corella, J. P., Maffezzoli, N., Cuevas, C. A., Vallelonga, P., Spolaor, A., Cozzi, G., Müller, J., Vinther, B., Barbante, C., Kjær, H. A., Edwards, R. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Holocene atmospheric iodine evolution over the North Atlantic, Clim. Past, 15(6), 2019–2030, doi:10.5194/cp-15-2019-2019, 2019.

- Cuevas, C. A., Maffezzoli, N., Corella, J. P., Spolaor, A., Vallelonga, P., Kjær, H. A., Simonsen, M., Winstrup, M., Vinther, B., Horvat, C., Fernandez, R. P., Kinnison, D., Lamarque, J. F., Barbante, C. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Rapid increase in atmospheric iodine levels in the North Atlantic since the mid-20th century, Nat. Commun., 9(1), doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03756-1, 2018.

- Fernandez, R. P., Carmona-Balea, A., Cuevas, C. A., Barrera, J. A., Kinnison, D. E., Lamarque, J.-F., Blaszczak-Boxe, C., Kim, K., Choi, W., Hay, T., Blechschmidt, A.-M., Schönhardt, A., Burrows, J. P. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Modeling the Sources and Chemistry of Polar Tropospheric Halogens (Cl, Br, and I) Using the CAM-Chem Global Chemistry-Climate Model, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 11(7), 2259–2289, doi:10.1029/2019MS001655, 2019.

- Francés-Monerris, A., Carmona-García, J., Acuña, A. U., Dávalos, J. Z., Cuevas, C. A., Kinnison, D. E., Francisco, J. S., Saiz-Lopez, A. and Roca-Sanjuán, D.: Photodissociation Mechanisms of Major Mercury(II) Species in the Atmospheric Chemical Cycle of Mercury, Angew. Chemie Int. Ed., 59(19), 7605–7610, doi:10.1002/anie.201915656, 2020.

- Iglesias-Suarez, F., Badia, A., Fernandez, R. P., Cuevas, C. A., Kinnison, D. E., Tilmes, S., Lamarque, J.-F., Long, M. C., Hossaini, R. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Natural halogens buffer tropospheric ozone in a changing climate, Nat. Clim. Chang., doi:10.1038/s41558-019-0675-6, 2020.

- Koenig, T. K., Baidar, S., Campuzano-Jost, P., Cuevas, C. A., Dix, B., Fernandez, R. P., Guo, H., Hall, S. R., Kinnison, D., Nault, B. A., Ullmann, K., Jimenez, J. L., Saiz-Lopez, A. and Volkamer, R.: Quantitative detection of iodine in the stratosphere, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 117(4), doi:10.1073/pnas.1916828117, 2020.

- Maffezzoli, N., Vallelonga, P., Edwards, R., Saiz-Lopez, A., Turetta, C., Kjær, H. A., Barbante, C., Vinther, B. and Spolaor, A.: A 120,000-year record of sea ice in the North Atlantic?, Clim. Past, 15(6), 2031–2051, doi:10.5194/cp-15-2031-2019, 2019.

- Saiz-Lopez, A., Sitkiewicz, S. P., Roca-Sanjuán, D., Oliva-Enrich, J. M., Dávalos, J. Z., Notario, R., Jiskra, M., Xu, Y., Wang, F., Thackray, C. P., Sunderland, E. M., Jacob, D. J., Travnikov, O., Cuevas, C. A., Acuña, A. U., Rivero, D., Plane, J. M. C., Kinnison, D. E. and Sonke, J. E.: Photoreduction of gaseous oxidized mercury changes global atmospheric mercury speciation, transport and deposition, Nat. Commun., 9(1), doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07075-3, 2018.

- Saiz-Lopez, A., Acuña, A. U., Trabelsi, T., Carmona-García, J., Dávalos, J. Z., Rivero, D., Cuevas, C. A., Kinnison, D. E., Sitkiewicz, S. P., Roca-Sanjuán, D. and Francisco, J. S.: Gas-Phase Photolysis of Hg(I) Radical Species: A New Atmospheric Mercury Reduction Process, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 141(22), 8698–8702, doi:10.1021/jacs.9b02890, 2019.

- Veres, P. R., Andrew Neuman, J., Bertram, T. H., Assaf, E., Wolfe, G. M., Williamson, C. J., Weinzierl, B., Tilmes, S., Thompson, C. R., Thames, A. B., Schroder, J. C., Saiz-Lopez, A., Rollins, A. W., Roberts, J. M., Price, D., Peischl, J., Nault, B. A., Møller, K. H., Miller, D. O., Meinardi, S., Li, Q., Lamarque, J. F., Kupc, A., Kjaergaard, H. G., Kinnison, D., Jimenez, J. L., Jernigan, C. M., Hornbrook, R. S., Hills, A., Dollner, M., Day, D. A., Cuevas, C. A., Campuzano-Jost, P., Burkholder, J., Paul Bui, T., Brune, W. H., Brown, S. S., Brock, C. A., Bourgeois, I., Blake, D. R., Apel, E. C. and Ryerson, T. B.: Global airborne sampling reveals a previously unobserved dimethyl sulfide oxidation mechanism in the marine atmosphere, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 117(9), doi:10.1073/pnas.1919344117, 2020.

- Jun Zhang, Donald J. Wuebbles, Douglas E. Kinnison and Alfonso SaizLopez: Revising the Ozone Depletion Potentials Metric for ShortLived Chemicals Such as CF3I and CH3I, JGR Atmospheres, Volume125, Issue9, 16 May 2020, e2020JD032414,, 2020.

- Qinyi Li, Alba Badia, Tao Wang, Golam Sarwar, Xiao Fu, Li Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Jimmy Fung, Carlos A. Cuevas, Shanshan Wang, Bin Zhou and Alfonso SaizLopez: Potential Effect of Halogens on Atmospheric Oxidation and Air Quality in China, JGR Atmospheres, Volume125, Issue9, 16 May 2020 e2019JD032058,, 2020

- Antonio FrancésMonerris, Javier CarmonaGarcía, A. Ulises Acuña, Juan Z. Dávalos, Carlos A. Cuevas, Douglas E. Kinnison, Joseph S. Francisco, Alfonso SaizLopez, Daniel RocaSanjuán: Photodissociation Mechanisms of Major Mercury(II) Species in the Atmospheric Chemical Cycle of Mercury, Angew. Chem. Volume 59, Issue 19, Pages 7605-7610,, 2020.

- Yong Su Baek, Kitae Kim, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Dae Wi Min, Bomi Kim, Wonyong Choie and Cheol Ho Choi: Entangled iodine and hydrogen peroxide formation in ice. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 22, 16532-16535, doi: 10.1039/D0CP02966A (Communication), 2020.

- Juan Carlos Gómez Martín, Thomas R. Lewis, Mark A. Blitz, John M. C. Plane, Manoj Kumar, Joseph S. Francisco and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez: A gas-to-particle conversion mechanism helps to explain atmospheric particle formation through clustering of iodine oxides, Nature Communications volume 11, Article number: 4521 (2020),, 2020.

- Thomas R. Lewis, Juan Carlos Gómez Martín, Mark A. Blitz, Carlos A. Cuevas, John M. C. Plane, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez: Determination of the absorption cross sections of higher-orderiodine oxides at 355 and 532 nm, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10865–10887,, 2020.

- Andrea Baccarini, Linn Karlsson, Josef Dommen, Patrick Duplessis, Jutta Vüllers, Ian M. Brooks, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Matthew Salter, Michael Tjernström, Urs Baltensperger, Paul Zieger & Julia Schmale: Frequent new particle formation over the high Arctic pack ice by enhanced iodine emissions, Nature Communications volume 11, Article number: 4924 (2020),, 2020.

- Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Oleg Travnikov, Jeroen E. Sonke, Colin P. Thackray, Daniel J. Jacob, Javier Carmona-García, Antonio Francés-Monerris, Daniel Roca-Sanjuán, A. Ulises Acuña, Juan Z. Dávalos, Carlos A. Cuevas, Martin Jiskra, Feiyue Wang, Johannes Bieser, John M. C. Plane and Joseph S. Francisco: Photochemistry of oxidized Hg(I) and Hg(II) species suggests missing mercury oxidation in the troposphere, PNAS November 23, 2020; 117(49) 30949-30956,, 2020.

- A. T. Archibald, J. L. Neu, Y. F. Elshorbany, O. R. Cooper, P. J. Young, H. Akiyoshi, R. A. Cox, M. Coyle, R. G. Derwent, M. Deushi, A. Finco, G. J. Frost, I. E. Galbally, G. Gerosa, C. Granier, P. T. Griffiths, R. Hossaini, L. Hu, P. Jo¨ckel, B. Josse, M. Y. Lin, M. Mertens, O. Morgenstern, M. Naja, V. Naik, S. Oltmans, D. A. Plummer, L. E. Revell, A. Saiz-Lopez, P. Saxena, Y. M. Shin, I. Shahid, D. Shallcross, S. Tilmes, T. Trickl, T. J. Wallington, T. Wang, H. M. Worden, and G. Zeng: Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: A critical review of changes in the tropospheric ozone burden and budget from 1850 to 2100: Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 8 (1): 034,, 2020.

- Yeqi Huang, Xingcheng Lu, Jimmy C.H. Fung, Golam Sarwarc, Zhenning Li, Qinyi Li, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Alexis K.H. Lau: Effect of bromine and iodine chemistry on tropospheric ozone over Asia-Pacific using the CMAQ model, Chemosphere, Volume 262, 127595,, 2020.

- Yee Jun Tham, Xu-Cheng Hea, Qinyi Li, Carlos A. Cuevas, Jiali Shen, Joni Kalliokoski, Chao Yan, Siddharth Iyer, Tuuli Lehmusjärvi, Sehyun Jang, Roseline C. Thakur, Lisa Beck, Deniz Kemppainen, Miska Olin, Nina Sarnela, Jyri Mikkilä, Jani Hakala, Marjan Marbouti, Lei Yao, Haiyan Li, Wei Huang, Yonghong Wang, Daniela Wimmer, Qiaozhi Zha, Juhani Virkanen, T. Gerard Spain, Simon O’Doherty, Tuija Jokinen, Federico Bianchi, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnopa, Roy L. Mauldin III, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Norbert M. Maier, Markku Kulmala, Colin O’Dowd, Miikka Dal Maso, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez and Mikko Sipilä: Direct field evidence of autocatalytic iodine release from atmospheric aerosol, PNAS January 26, 2021 118 (4) e2009951118,, 2021.

- Qinyi Li, Alba Badia, Rafael P. Fernandez, Anoop S. Mahajan, Ana Isabel López-Noreña, Yan Zhang, Shanshan Wang, Enrique Puliafito, Carlos A. Cuevas, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez: Chemical Interactions Between Ship-Originated Air Pollutants and Ocean-Emitted Halogens. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126, e2020JD034175., 2021.

- Lisa J. Beck, Nina Sarnela, Heikki Junninen, Clara J. M. Hoppe, Olga Garmash, Federico Bianchi, Matthieu Riva, Clemence Rose, Otso Peräkylä, Daniela Wimmer, Oskari Kausiala, Tuija Jokinen, Lauri Ahonen, Jyri Mikkilä, Jani Hakala, Xu-Cheng He, Jenni Kontkanen, Klara K. E. Wolf, David Cappelletti, Mauro Mazzola, Rita Traversi, Chiara Petroselli, Angelo P. Viola, Vito Vitale, Robert Lange, Andreas Massling, Jakob K. Nøjgaard, Radovan Krejci, Linn Karlsson, Paul Zieger, Sehyun Jang, Kitack Lee, Ville Vakkari, Janne Lampilahti, Roseline C. Thakur, Katri Leino, Juha Kangasluoma, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Erkki Siivola, Marjan Marbouti, Yee Jun Tham, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez , Tuukka Petäjä, Mikael Ehn, Douglas R. Worsnop, Henrik Skov, Markku Kulmala, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Mikko Sipilä: Differing Mechanisms of New Particle Formation at Two Arctic Sites, Geophysical Research Letter, Volume 48, Issue 4,, 2021.

- Rafael P. Fernandez, Javier A. Barrera, Ana Isabel López-Noreña, Douglas E. Kinnison, Julie Nicely, Ross J. Salawitch, Pamela A. Wales, Beatriz M. Toselli, Simone Tilmes, Jean-François Lamarque, Carlos A. Cuevas, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez: Intercomparison Between Surrogate, Explicit, and Full Treatments of VSL Bromine Chemistry Within the CAM-Chem Chemistry-Climate Model, Geophysical Research Letter, Volume 48, Issue 4,, 2021.

- Xiang Peng, Weihao Wang, Men Xia, Hui Chen, A.R. Ravishankara, Qinyi Li, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Pengfei Liu, Fei Zhang, Chenglong Zhang, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Christian George, Jinhe Wang, Yujing Mu, Jianmin Chen and Tao Wang: An unexpected large continental source of reactive bromine and chlorine with significant impact on wintertime air quality. National Science Review, nwaa304,, 2021.

- Juan Carlos Gómez Martín, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Benjamin Gilfedder, Rolf Weller, Alex R. Baker, Elise Droste, and Senchao Lai: Spatial and Temporal Variability of Iodine in Aerosol, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126, e2020JD034410,, 2021.

- Anoop S. Mahajan, Qinyi Li, Swaleha Inamdar, Kirpa Ram, Alba Badia and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez: Modelling the impacts of iodine chemistry on thenorthern Indian Ocean marine boundary layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8437–8454,, 2021.

- Qinyi Li, Xiao Fu, Xiang Peng, Weihao Wang, Alba Badia, Rafael P. Fernandez, Carlos A. Cuevas, Yujing Mu, Jianmin Chen, Jose L. Jimenez, Tao Wang and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez: Halogens Enhance Haze Pollution in China, Environ. Sci. Technol., 55, 20, 13625–13637,, 2021.

- Andrea Spolaor, François Burgay, Rafael P. Fernandez, Clara Turetta, Carlos A. Cuevas, Kitae Kim, Douglas E. Kinnison, Jean-François Lamarque, Fabrizio de Blasi, Elena Barbaro, Juan Pablo Corella, Paul Vallelonga, Massimo Frezzotti, Carlo Barbante and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez: Antarctic ozone hole modifies iodine geochemistry on the Antarctic Plateau, Nature Communication 12, 5836,, 2021.

- Alba Badia, Fernando Iglesias-Suarez , Rafael P. Fernandez , Carlos A. Cuevas, Douglas E. Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Paul T. Griffiths, David W. Tarasick, Jane Liu and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez: The Role of Natural Halogens in Global Tropospheric Ozone Chemistry and Budget Under Different 21st Century Climate Scenarios, JRG Atmospheres, Volume126, Issue20,, 2021.

-Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, Eric C. Apel, James F. Bresch, Carlos A. Cuevas, Barbara Dix, Edwin W. Eloranta, Rafael P. Fernandez, Samuel R. Hall, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, R. Bradley Pierce, J. Michael Reeves, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Kirk Ullmann: Ozone depletion due to dust release of iodine in the free troposphere, Science Advances, Vol 7, Issue 52, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abj6544, 2021.

- Juan Pablo Corella, Niccolo Maffezzoli, Andrea Spolaor, Paul Vallelonga, Carlos A. Cuevas, Federico Scoto, Juliane Müller, Bo Vinther, Helle A. Kjær, Giulio Cozzi, Ross Edwards, Carlo Barbante and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez: Climate changes modulated the history of Arctic iodine during the Last Glacial Cycle, Nature Communications volume 13, Article number: 88,, 2022.

- Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Douglas E. Kinnison, Qinyi Li, Jean-François Lamarque, Tarek Trabelsi, Joseph S. Francisco, Susan Solomon, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez: The influence of iodine on the Antarctic stratospheric ozone hole, PNAS 119 (7) e2110864119,, 2022.

- Xiang Peng, Tao Wang, Weihao Wang , A. R. Ravishankara, Christian George, Men Xia, Min Cai, Qinyi Li, Christian Mark Salvador, Chiho Lau, Xiaopu Lyu, Chun Nan Poon, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Yujing Mu, Mattias Hallquist, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Hai Guo, Hartmut Herrmann, Chuan Yu, Jianing Dai, Yanan Wang, Xinke Wang, Alfred Yu, Kenneth Leung, Shuncheng Lee and Jianmin Chen: Photodissociation of particulate nitrate as a source of daytime tropospheric Cl2, Nature Communications volume 13, Article number: 939,, 2022.

- Juan Carlos Gómez Martín, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlos A. Cuevas, Alex R. Baker, and Rafael P. Fernández: On the Speciation of Iodine in Marine Aerosol, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127, e2021JD036081,, 2022.


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